James Madison was the 4th American President. He loved the new American nation and wanted to see the young country become strong and have enough power to protect her citizens. Madison was present at many of the defining moments that helped to form an independent country. The Early Times of James Madison James Madison was born in 1751 and grew up in Orange County, Virginia. He attended the College of New Jersey, which later became known as Princeton. He studied history, government, and had an interest in law. He contributed to the writing of Virginia’s state constitution in 1776. James Madison was also chosen to participate in the Continental Congress because he was a major contributor to the Virginia Assembly. At the age of 36, James Madison was one of the Constitutional Convention delegates that gathered in Philadelphia, and the other attendees noted Madison took a central role in the debates. James Madison was ...

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Thomas Jefferson was a strong choice for the 3rd American President. Even though he was reluctant to take part when he was nominated, he managed to be a strong fiscal leader and a wily negotiator for the young country. Early Life of Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson didn’t begin his formal education until he was nine years old. He studied Latin and Greek at a small private school led by the Reverend William Douglas where his family lived. He started studying classical languages, literature, and mathematics when he turned 14 in 1757. His learned with the Reverend James Maury, "a correct classical scholar," according to Jefferson in later reflections. He was an average looking man, freckled, sandy-haired, tall, and gangly. Thomas Jefferson wasn’t a great public speaker, but he was a persuasive and well-expressed correspondent. While serving in the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he contributed using his pen instead of ...

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As a political philosopher, former American President John Adams made more of a mark on current policy making than as a politician. One of his most well-known quotes refers not only to himself, but the newly formed government. He stated, "People and nations are forged in the fires of adversity." A Young John Adams On October 30, 1735, John Adams was born at the family farm in Quincy, Massachusetts. John Adams earned a scholarship to attend Harvard University when he was 16 years old. After graduating the first time in four years later, he was able to study law with the well-known lawyer, John Putnam. He did this against his despite his father's desire for him to become a minister. He re-entered Harvard in 1758, and he earned his master's degree before being accepted to the bar.  The American President, John Adams In the 1796 presidential election, John Adams was selected to be the Federalist ...

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George Washington was the 1stAmerican President of the United States. His life experience helped build a man that was confident and steadfast in his beliefs concerning the traits that would make a strong leader.  Early Life of George Washington On February 22, 1732, George Washington was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia.  He was the oldest of the six children born from his father's second marriage, and was considered landed gentry because of the family estate, Wakefield Plantation. From early childhood until the age of 16, he lived at Wakefield and at other plantations along the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers. One of those plantations was later renamed Mount Vernon. George Washington’s education was rudimentary, probably having tutors or possibly private schools, but he did learn surveying. He was 11 when his father died and his half-brother Lawrence, who served as part of the Royal Navy, became his mentor. During this time, Washington developed an ...

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Condoleezza Rice was the first ever black woman to serve as the national security advisor to the United States and went on to be the first black woman to serve as the US Secretary of State, a position she held from between 2005 and 2009, Growing up in Birmingham Alabama, all through her youth and childhood Condoleezza Rice was faced with racism but she never let this hold her back and spent her entire life being a trailblazer. Not only was Condoleezza Rice the first black woman to hold positions of great importance within the US government, she was also the first black woman to serve as provost of Standford University. Condoleezza Rice served in the government of President George W. Bush but began her political career in the mid 1980’s when she spent some time in Washington DC working as an international affairs fellow attached to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Her background ...

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William Jefferson Clinton, more commonly known as Bill Clinton was the 42nd President of the United States and is known for being one of the most controversial Presidents of the US. Bill Clinton served as the president of the United States from 1993 until 2001 and is known as much for his relationships while in office as he is for his policies. During his term as president Bill Clinton presided over one of the longest periods of peace and economic expansion in American history, this is of course countered by his notoriety and his finally being impeached while president. Bill Clinton was born in Hope, Arkansas. His father tragically was killed in a car accident before he was born and his mother remarried with Bill taking the last name of Clinton as he has been born William Jefferson Blythe. After graduating from Yale, Clinton then went on to teach law at the University of Arkansas. His ...

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Ronald Regan is one of the best known celebrity politicians in the world and went on to lead America through some truly challenging times. He began his career, not in politics, but instead as a radio announcer in 1932 and went on to become the voice of Major league Baseball before then signing a contract with Warner brothers as an actor. Younger followers of politics may only know Regan for his political career but he made around 50 Hollywood films in his time and was even elected  as the Screen Actors Guild President in 1947 and served until 1952 and again from 1959-60. Ronald Regan hit the international spotlight once again when he was put up as the 1980 Republican nomination for President with George Bush running as his vice president. Regan was up against Jimmy Carter but Regan won the popular vote with 51 percent of the vote and 489 out of 538 ...

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Situated in the north-western corner of Georgia with the Black Sea to the south-west and the Caucasus mountains and Russia to the north-east, Abkhazia has always been an autonomous republic, even under the rule of Josef Stalin in 1921. Its geographical proximity to Georgia meant that it was always always at odds with the Georgian side, compounded their their use of old slavic languages. While the Abkhaz consider their independence to be a result of a war of liberation from Georgia, the Georgians believe that historically Abkhazia has always been part of Georgia.(Georgians form the single largest ethnic group in pre-war Abkhazia, with a 45.7% plurality as of 1989 before the ethnic cleansing in 1994.) As the Soviet Union began to disintegrate towards the end of the 1980s, ethnic tensions grew between the Abkhaz and Georgians over Georgia's moves towards independence. This led to the 1992–1993 War in Abkhazia that resulted ...

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