Whenever we speak of happiness, there is always a conflict in our minds. On one side are the short-term pleasures that we run after that we sometimes call happiness (e.g. ‘This is the happiest day of my life!’). On the other side is the peaceful, long-lasting state of serenity that we yearn for, which we also call happiness (e.g. ‘I want to be happy.’ ‘Are you truly happy?’). The ancient Greek philosopher, Epicurus, spent an awful lot of time thinking about these very things, and he’s generally known to be a materialist. He lent his name to a form of life called Epicureanism, in which pleasure is held to be the highest goal of life. Indeed, Epicurus himself said once: ‘Pleasure is our first and kindred good. It is the starting point of every choice and of every aversion, and to it we always come back, inasmuch as we make feeling ...

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Rationalists claim that there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge is gained independently of sense experience. Empiricists claim that sense experience is the ultimate source of all our concepts and knowledge. In this essay, I seek to argue that in the order of argument, rationalism precedes Ironism. In other words, Ironism is a conclusion of rationalism. However, Ironism can also be a conclusion of what I will call “radical empiricism”. Radical empiricism in this context has less consideration of a priori theory than a moderate empiricist. Both, in the realisation that their belief systems are not able to “underwrite the doubts” of other belief systems, will eventually begin to come to skeptical conclusions, which conduces towards the ironist point of view. Emerging from this skeptical challenge would be twofold; the rationalist grudgingly accepts the eventual acceptance that one’s moral vocabulary is incomprehensive enough, with “radical and continuing ...

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“Mathematics is the queen of sciences and arithmetic the queen of mathematics” Carl Friedrich Gauss What exactly is mathematics? What is the core function of mathematics? Did mathematics precede philosophy and science? How do these concepts relate to each other? While we don’t exactly have all the answers, this article will attempt to elucidate some of the concepts. Just treat it as though we are thinking aloud – that helps a ton in intellectualizing ourselves to mathematical fulfillment, a process you may love to undergo if you have been suffering through the mathematics syllabus in your respective countries. How did it come about? Mathematics is mainly based on logic. In its earlier stages of formation, it was usually married with philosophy, as the ancient Greeks used mathematics on top of philosophy to explain the scientific phenomena around us. Using draw the often quoted dichotomies (they are not really as polarized as they are; ...

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I. Introduction One way of viewing the history of Western philosophy is as a gradual separating out of questions that are essentially empirical in nature from those that aren’t; the former constitutes today’s science, the latter what we currently think of as philosophy. While trust in the explanatory power of science has grown, philosophy has come to be seen as increasingly unreliable in what it can tell us about the world. This, however, is to miscast philosophy based on a scientific model. Indeed, once a philosophical question becomes addressable by a scientific method of falsification, it has moved over into the domain of science. Philosophy as a field is largely made up of questions that have yet to, or never will, move over to the scientific domain. As such, it’s philosophy’s task to ask questions that current science isn’t prepared to ask, much less test, though it’s even more than this. The claim ...

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Cooperation is an interesting field that is extensive and diverse, contingent on a multitude of factors and very easily affected by the constructions of institutions. In my short review, we will attempt to explain why people vary in selfishness, as well as examine the motivations behind certain types of behavior, and if it changes in different levels of evolution in the human lifetime. Unfortunately, it is a tall ask to explain how exactly does virtue arise with the creation of social order, and how it subsequently shapes our cooperative levels, a topic we shall thus leave for another day. Why do people vary in selfishness? Firstly, altruistic behavior can be explained as one such motivation. Altruistic behavior can be defined as behavior that benefits another organism, not closely related, while being apparently detrimental to the organism performing the behavior, benefit and detriment being defined in terms of contribution to inclusive fitness. One ...

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