Cooperation is an interesting field that is extensive and diverse, contingent on a multitude of factors and very easily affected by the constructions of institutions. In my short review, we will attempt to explain why people vary in selfishness, as well as examine the motivations behind certain types of behavior, and if it changes in different levels of evolution in the human lifetime. Unfortunately, it is a tall ask to explain how exactly does virtue arise with the creation of social order, and how it subsequently shapes our cooperative levels, a topic we shall thus leave for another day. Why do people vary in selfishness? Firstly, altruistic behavior can be explained as one such motivation. Altruistic behavior can be defined as behavior that benefits another organism, not closely related, while being apparently detrimental to the organism performing the behavior, benefit and detriment being defined in terms of contribution to inclusive fitness. One ...

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America, a melting pot of cultures, hubbard of ideas, symbol of liberty, is still very much the place that most immigrants hope to go to in hope for a better life.Yet, as the demographics of the country shift again, America finds herself not only on the verge of an economic overhaul, but also very much a demographic overhaul. Paul Taylor’s newest book, The Next America, is a well informed book packed with years of data compiled by the partnering Pew Research Data. As already mentioned in the preface of the book, Taylor acknowledges that The Next America is a book that is backed up by a fact tank in the Pew Research Center, with the faith that the common foundation of facts can help societies identify problems and discover solutions. With Obama’s ‘surprise’ reelection victory, Taylor draws us to the ideological differences between the older generations and the millennials. As he aptly ...

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